Yes, there is such a thing as temporary car insurance, but it is not sold in the standard market and can be very expensive. In most cases, it is only good for certain rare circumstances like international travel. Your regular insurance will not cover you in other countries and if you plan on driving abroad, you will need temporary coverage.
If you don’t own a car but tend to borrow or rent one from time to time, talk to your agent about a named non-owner policy. This is a policy that will cover you as a driver without a car, and it provides long-term benefits that temporary coverage cannot. It is less expensive, and you will earn a trackable insurance history that will help you save money over time.
If you think temporary insurance may be something you need, check out this article: How to Get Short-Term or Temporary Car Insurance.